Oral Citation Guide: Home

This guide serves to assist CSN students in orally citing sources during a speech. Always check with your instructor to make sure these guidelines meet their requirements.

Why cite your sources during a speech?


An oral citation conveys the reliability, validity and currency of your information. Citing your sources orally lets your audience know that you have researched your topic.


CSN’s Student Academic Integrity Policy defines plagiarism as “intentionally using the words, creative works, or ideas of another, from the Internet or any source, without proper citation of the sources.” This policy, along with CSN’s Student Conduct Code and the Nevada System of Higher Education’s Code, prohibits plagiarism.

Failure to provide an oral citation is considered a form of plagiarism, even if you cite your sources in a written outline, bibliography, works cited page or list of references.

When you are delivering a speech, you must provide an oral citation for any words, information or ideas that are not your own.  

Understanding quoting and paraphrasing


You are quoting a source when you say the information from that source word for word. When you use a quote in your speech, you must identify the source. You also must let the audience know that you are quoting.


In an article in the November 2020 issue of the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Dr. Roger Giner-Sorolla, a professor of social psychology at the University of Kent says, and I quote, "As an institution, our field could do more to support representation and equality, both within itself and in society at large."


You are paraphrasing a source when you refer to someone else’s idea, but you say that idea in your own words. Before you talk about the idea, you must refer to the source.


According to the “Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet,” last updated March 17th, 2020 by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, symptoms of Tourette syndrome include tics such as eye blinking, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging and head jerking.

What should an oral citation include?


Mention the author’s name, along with credentials to establish that author as a credible source.


In the May 7th, 2018 issue of The Atlantic, journalist and National Book Award winning author Ta-Nehisi Coates wrote…


Say the title of a book, magazine, journal or web site. You should identify the type of publication and provide a comment regarding credibility if the publication is not widely recognized.


In the February 2020 issue of the Journal for Nurse Practitioners, a peer-reviewed official publication of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, author Tonya M Carter describes shingles as…

Titles of articles do not necessarily have to be mentioned, unless you are using several articles from the same source.


Say the date that a book, journal, magazine or newspaper was published. If you are using information from an interview, give the date when the person was interviewed.

If you are using information from a website that doesn’t clearly show a date on the document, say the date that the web page was last updated and/or the date you accessed the website.


The web page titled “The History of Figs,” dated 2019, provided by The Spruce Eats organization of recipe developers, reveals that the fig isn't actually a fruit but is called a syconium.