When you quote, summarize or paraphrase information you found in a source (book, article, etc.), you use in-text citations to give credit to the creator of the information. The purpose of the in-text citation is to help readers find the source in your References list. In-text citations go directly after your information. There are two types: Parenthetical citation uses parentheses. Narrative citation uses the author's name in the sentence.
(Author’s Last Name, year of publication). OR for direct quotations: (Last Name, year of publication, page number).
Mexican culture has an important influence on Mexican families (Díaz-Loving, 2019).
"Cultural influences the structure and function of families" (Díaz-Loving, 2019, p. 153).
If you write the author’s name in the sentence, you do not need to repeat in the parentheses at the end.
Díaz-Loving (2019) notes that some scholars confuse gender constructs with stereotypes.
Díaz-Loving (2019) states that "culture influences the structure and function of families" (p. 153).
If there are 2 authors, include both names.
(Padilla-Gamez & Díaz-Loving, 2014).
If there are 3 or more authors, use the first author’s last name followed by et al.
(Garcia-Torres et al., 2017).
For some websites, you will not have an author name. If there is a group/organization as the author with abbreviations, spell out the first citation and use abbreviations after. If there is no author, use the first piece of information from the citation on your References page. For information from an organization's website, use the organization name. If there's no abbreviation, spell out the organization.
(American Library Association [ALA], 2020). Then later: (ALA, 2020).
(Harvard University, 2020).
For news and magazine articles with no author, use the first few words of the article’s title in quotation marks.
(“Deaf culture, past and present,” 2018)
If you have two or more authors in your References list have the same last name, include the first initials in the in-text citations to distinguish between the two.
(R. Díaz-Loving, 2019)
Personal communications should include person, type of communication and date. You would not include a corresponding personal communication citation on the References list.
(L. Ellis, personal communication, September 28, 2019).